The average family unit size in Altoona, PA is 2.84 household members, with 64% owning their particular homes. The mean home appraisal is $87919. For those people leasing, they pay an average of $697 per month. 45.5% of homes have two incomes, and a typical domestic income of $41403. Average individual income is $23509. 23.4% of inhabitants survive at or below the poverty line, and 19.4% are handicapped. 9% of residents of the town are veterans of the armed forces.
Lets visit Chaco Culture Park in NW New Mexico, USA from Altoona. Based from the use of similar buildings by current Puebloan peoples, these rooms had been areas that are probably common for rites and gatherings, with a fireplace in the middle and room access supplied by a ladder extending through a smoke hole in the ceiling. Large kivas, or "great kivas," were able to accommodate hundreds of people and stood alone when not integrated into a housing that is large, frequently constituting a center location for surrounding villages made of (relatively) little buildings. To sustain large buildings that are multi-story held rooms with floor spaces and ceiling heights far greater than those of pre-existing houses, Chacoans erected gigantic walls employing a "core-and-veneer" method variant. An core that is inner of sandstone with mud mortar created the core to which slimmer facing stones were joined to produce a veneer. These walls were approximately one meter thick at the base, tapering as they ascended to conserve weight--an indication that builders planned the upper stories during the original building in other instances. While these mosaic-style veneers remain evident today, adding to these structures' remarkable beauty, Chacoans plastered plaster to many interior and exterior walls after construction was total to preserve the mud mortar from water harm. Starting with Chetro Ketl's building, Chaco Canyon, projects for this magnitude needed a huge number of three vital materials: sandstone, water, and lumber. Employing stone tools, Chacoans mined then molded and faced sandstone from canyon walls, choosing hard and dark-colored tabular stone at the most effective of cliffs during initial building, going as styles altered during later construction to softer and bigger tan-colored stone lower down cliffs. Liquid, essential to build mud mortar and plaster combined with sand, silt and clay, was marginal and accessible only during short and summer that is typically heavy. Natural sandstone reservoirs were not the only sources of precipitation. Rainwater was also collected in dammed and well-constructed areas in Chaco Wash's arroyo, an intermittently flowing creek that cuts the canyon. Also, runoff from the ditches went to ponds where it was channeled. The canyon used to be rich in timber, which was essential for building roofs or higher stories. However, this has been lost due to drought and deforestation. Chacoans traveled 80 km by foot from the canyon to reach forests that are coniferous the west and south, cutting down the trees, then peeling them and drying them for a longer time before they returned to the canyon. It was no feat that is small that each tree required a long trip by several people. Additionally, approximately 200,000 trees were used during three centuries of construction and maintenance of twelve large houses and large kivas within the canyon. Canyon's Designed Landscape. Chaco Canyon was home to a large amount of unusually high-density building, however it was just a small percentage of the vast linked land that gave increase towards the Chacoan civilisation. There were more than 200 settlements which had large buildings or large kivas and used the same brick architecture and style as those found outside of the canyon. These sites were more common in the San Juan Basin but they also covered a greater area of Colorado Plateau than England. Chacoans created a road that is complex to connect the different settlements with the canyon. They dug and levelled the floor, adding clay curbs and stone supports. They are usually built in canyons with large homes, and extend outward in amazing sections that are straight. Chaco Canyon is home to commerce and agriculture. Chaco Canyon's winters can be long and brutally cold. This limits the period for growth. Summers at Chaco Canyon's two-kilometer high tend to be hot. The canyon is characterized by a lack of trees, and alternating between drought and rain, so temperatures can fluctuate up to 27°C in one day. This means that you need to have both firewood and water. Chacoans managed to grow the Mesoamerican Triad - maize and beans, and then squash - despite this unpredictable climate. They used a range of dry farming techniques, such as terraced soil and irrigation methods. The majority of the food and other necessities for daily living were imported despite the scarcity of natural resources. Ceramic storage jars and hard sedimentary rocks and volcanic stones were imported to make point that is projectile, as well as turquoise, which was used for designs. Chacoan artists also used the inlays and inlays for the turquoise to produce inlays and ornaments. Additionally, domestic turkeys were brought in to be used in making blankets to warm up the canyon. The trading networks grew in complexity and size as Chacoan society grew. It reached its peak around the Century that is 11th CE. The Chacoan immigrants brought animals that are exotic artifacts via trade routes that extended west to the Gulf of California, south over 1000 km down the coast of Mexico. These seashells were used for making trumpets, copper bells and cocoa. Scarlet macaws are parrots with vibrant red, yellow and plumage that is blue kept in large houses as pets.